African american scholarly essays

African Americans can be found in every stratum of the American population. However, it remains a fact that the vast majority of African Americans are outside of the social culture of the dominant society in the United States. In a little less than one hundred and thirty years African Americans who were emancipated with neither wealth nor good prospects for wealth have been able to advance in the American society against all odds. Considered determined and doggedly competitive in situations that threaten survival, African Americans have had to outrun economic disaster in every era. Discrimination against African Americans remain in private clubs, country clubs, social functions, and in some organizations. Nevertheless, African Americans have challenged hundreds of rules and regulations which have tried to limit choice.

SOLUTION - African American - Essays Collection

African American messianic nationalism has exhibited Judaic, Islamic, and Christian streams.

African American Studies – Usa Online Essays

The Great Civil Rights Movement of the l950's and l960's ushered in a whole new generation of African Americans who were committed to advancing the cause of justice and equality. Rosa Parks refused to give her seat to a white man on a Montgomery city bus and created a stir that would not end until the most visible signs of racism were overthrown. Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as the leading spokesperson and chief symbol of a people tired of racism and segregation and prepared to fight and die if necessary in order to obtain legal and human rights. Malcolm X took the battle one step further, insisting that the African American was psychologically lost as well and therefore had to find historical and cultural validity in the reclamation of the African connection. Thus, out of the crucible of the l960's came a more vigorous movement toward full recognition of the African past and legacy. Relationships with other groups depended more and more on mutual respect rather than the African Americans acting like clients to other groups. African Americans expressed their concern that the Jewish community had not supported affirmative action although there was a long history of Jewish support for African American causes. Accepting the role of vanguard in the struggle to extend the protection of the American Constitution to oppressed people, African American made serious demands on municipal and federal officials during the Great Civil Rights Movement. Voting rights were guaranteed and protected, educational segregation was made illegal, and petty discriminations against African Americans in hotels and public facilities were eradicated by the sustained protests and demonstrations of the Era.

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Full text digitized copies of the nation's first African American owned and operated newspaper, 1827-1829. The first 20 issues are currently (6/00) available free online, with the remaining 80 some issues scheduled to follow. Adobe Acrobat reader necessary, and available online for downloading if needed. From the State Historical Society of Wisconsin Library, a leader in the collection, preservation, and promotion of African American periodicals.

Henry, Charles (1990) Culture and African American Politics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Essays on the African American Environmental Imagination (Lit Verlag, 2003)

African American Introduction - Essay by Upabali - Anti Essays

A growing economy does not always mean that African Americans will be served by that growth. African Americans have been key components in the economic system of the United States since its inception. However, the initial relationship of the African American population to the economy was based upon enslaved labor. Africans were instrumental in establishing the industrial and agrarian power of the United States. Railroads, factories, residencies, and places of business were often built by enslaved Africans. Now African Americans are engaged in every sector of the American economy, though the integration in some sectors is less than in others. A considerable portion of the African American population works in the industrial or service occupations. Others are found in the professions as opposed to small businesses. Thus, teachers, lawyers, doctors, and managers account for the principal professional workers. These patterns are based upon previous conditions of discrimination in businesses throughout the South. Most African Americans could find employment in communities where their professional services were needed, therefore, the above mentioned professions and others that cater to the African American population provide numerous opportunities for employment. During the past twenty years the number of businesses opened by African Americans has begun to increase again. Under the period of segregation many businesses which existed solely for the convenience of the African American population flourished. When the Great Civil Rights Movement ended most of the petty discriminations and it was possible for African Americans to trade and shop at other stores and businesses, the businesses located in the African American community suffered. There is now a greater awareness of the need to see businesses as interconnected and interdependent with and on the greater American society. A greater and more equitable role is being played by the woman in the African American community. Indeed, many of the chief leaders in the economic development of the African American community are and have been women. Both men and women have always worked in the majority of African American homes and during the Enslavement work was the principal activity of both men and women.

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Although in the early 1950s Selchow and Righter reissued "Snake Eyes" without changing the graphics, as the decade progressed, and the political and economic clout of African Americans grew, Blacks ceased to be the literal and figurative targets of abuse and ridicule. As in nearly every other genre of popular culture, images of Blacks disappeared entirely from games during the turbulent civil rights years. Images of African Americans simply became too "controversial" for the culture-makers to treat in overtly derogatory--or any other--ways.

Read the full-text online edition of South of Tradition: Essays on African American ..

HAS " African American Studies Distinguished Scholar Lecture

African Americans did not freely come to America. This is not a history of a people seeking to escape political oppression, economic exploitation, religious intolerance, or social injustice. Rather the ancestors of the present African Americans were stolen from the continent of Africa, placed on ships against their wills, and transported across the Atlantic. While most of the enslaved Africans went to Brazil and Cuba, a great portion landed in the Southern States of the United States. At the height of the European Slave Trade almost every nation in Europe was involved in some aspect of the enterprise. As the "trade" grew more profitable and the European captains became more ambitious, larger ships with specially built "slave galleries" were commissioned. These galleries between the decks were no more than eighteen inches in height. Each African was allotted no more than a sixteen inches wide and five and a half feet long space for the many weeks or months of the Atlantic crossing. Here the Africans were forced to lie down shackled together in chains fastened to staples in the deck. Needless to say, many Africans perished under such conditions. Where the space was two feet high Africans were often allowed to sit with legs on legs like riders on a crowed sled. Africans were transported from Africa to America seated in this position with a once a day break for exercise. Many died or went insane.