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Gender is not just a social role that unifies social individuals. Witttakes it to be the social role — as she puts it, itis the mega social role that unifies social agents. First,gender is a mega social role if it satisfies two conditions (and Wittclaims that it does): (1) if it provides the principle of synchronicand diachronic unity of social individuals, and (2) if it inflects anddefines a broad range of other social roles. Gender satisfies thefirst in usually being a life-long social position: a socialindividual persists just as long as their gendered social positionpersists. Further, Witt maintains, trans people are notcounterexamples to this claim: transitioning entails that the oldsocial individual has ceased to exist and a new one has come intobeing. And this is consistent with the same person persisting andundergoing social individual change via transitioning. Gendersatisfies the second condition too. It inflects other social roles,like being a parent or a professional. The expectations attached tothese social roles differ depending on the agent's gender, sincegender imposes different social norms to govern the execution of thefurther social roles. Now, gender — as opposed to some othersocial category, like race — is not just a mega social role; itis the unifying mega social role. Cross-cultural and trans-historicalconsiderations support this view. Witt claims that patriarchy is asocial universal (2011a, 98). By contrast, racial categorisationvaries historically and cross-culturally, and racial oppression is nota universal feature of human cultures. Thus, gender has a better claimto being the social role that is uniessential to socialindividuals. This account of gender essentialism not only explainssocial agents' connectedness to their gender, but it also provides ahelpful way to conceive of women's agency — something that iscentral to feminist politics.

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Understanding ageism: Lessons from feminism and postmodernism

Charlotte Witt (2011a; 2011b) argues for a particularsort of gender essentialism, which Witt terms‘uniessentialism’. Her motivation and starting point isthe following: many ordinary social agents report gender beingessential to them and claim that they would be a different person werethey of a different sex/gender. Uniessentialism attempts to understandand articulate this. However, Witt's work departs in importantrespects from the earlier (so-called) essentialist or gender realistpositions discussed in Section 2: Witt does not posit some essentialproperty of womanhood of the kind discussed above, which failed totake women's differences into account. Further, uniessentialismdiffers significantly from those position developed in response to theproblem of how we should conceive of women's social kind. It is notabout solving the standard dispute between gender nominalists andgender realists, or about articulating some supposedly shared propertythat binds women together and provides a theoretical ground forfeminist political solidarity. Rather, uniessentialism aims to makegood the widely held belief that gender is constitutive of who weare.[]

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In addition to her revisionary argument, Haslanger has suggested thather ameliorative analysis of woman may not be as revisionaryas it first seems (2005, 2006). Although successful in their referencefixing, ordinary language users do not always know precisely what theyare talking about. Our language use may be skewed by oppressiveideologies that can “mislead us about the content of our ownthoughts” (Haslanger 2005, 12). Although her gender terminologyis not intuitive, this could simply be because oppressive ideologiesmislead us about the meanings of our gender terms. Our everyday genderterminology might mean something utterly different from what wethink it means; and we could be entirely ignorant ofthis. Perhaps Haslanger's analysis, then, has captured our everydaygender vocabulary revealing to us the terms that we actually employ:we may be applying ‘woman’ in our everyday language on thebasis of sex-marked subordination whether we take ourselves to bedoing so or not. If this is so, Haslanger's gender terminology is notradically revisionist.

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This collection is meant to feature more than 100 anthropology research paper examples. Since its emergence as a scientific discipline in the middle of the 19th century, anthropology has focused on the study of humankind in terms of science and reason, as well as logical speculation. Within a comprehensive and interdisciplinary framework, anthropology aims for a better understanding of and proper appreciation for the place of our species within earth history and organic development. As such, the scientific theory of biological evolution has been indispensable for giving meaning and purpose to the awesome range of empirical facts and conceptual insights that now constitute the rich content of present-day anthropology. Furthermore, cross-cultural studies emphasize the vast differences among human groups from the perspectives of material culture, social behavior, languages, and worldviews. Browse

Essays on racism and discrimination. The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is a qualification which students sit at the age of 16.

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More recently, Mikkola (2011) has argued that the sex/gender distinction,which underlies views like Rubin's and MacKinnon's, has certainunintuitive and undesirable ontological commitments that render thedistinction politically unhelpful. First, claiming that gender issocially constructed implies that the existence of women and men is amind-dependent matter. This suggests that we can do away with womenand men simply by altering some social practices, conventions orconditions on which gender depends (whatever those are). However,ordinary social agents find this unintuitive given that (ordinarily)sex and gender are not distinguished. Second, claiming that gender isa product of oppressive social forces suggests that doing away withwomen and men should be feminism's political goal. But this harboursontologically undesirable commitments since many ordinary socialagents view their gender to be a source of positive value. So,feminism seems to want to do away with something that should not bedone away with, which is unlikely to motivate social agents to act inways that aim at gender justice. Given these problems, Mikkola arguesthat feminists should give up the distinction on practical politicalgrounds.

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Discursive Essays - StudentShare

One good reason to have a fixed retirement age is that it helps to prevent people from working when they are no longer able to do their jobs as well. Not everyone who passes a certain age experiences a significant decline in cognitive abilities however. For them, such restrictions might seem like discrimination. The experience that they have acquired in their field may be squandered from that point on.