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In addition there has been considerable research on the relationship between climate change and fisheries in Cambodia. Fisheries are a critical component of rural livelihoods and makes up as much as 80 per cent of the animal protein in a traditional diet. Hydrological variation in the Mekong Basin induced by climate change is predicted to amplify the emerging boom and bust cycle of fish catches, resulting in less stability for rural people. It is argued that fisheries and aquaculture can provide compensation for other adaptation problems such as low lying agricultural land and should be considered a key component of adaptation strategies in the country.

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Strategies for sustainable development and climate change adaptation have many common elements, so addressing them jointly can create synergies.

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The link between climate change and sustainable development stems from the fact that climate change is a constraint to development, and sustainable development is a key to capacities for mitigation and adaptation (see ). It follows that strategies for dealing with sustainable development and climate change have many common elements so that applying them together creates synergies. It also follows that since dealing with climate change exclusively could be very expensive, it has to be factored into the development agenda.

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The Adaptation Platform is led by the Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Division (CCIAD) at Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). It …

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There are a variety of initiatives designed to assist the Solomon Islands in assessing and documenting vulnerabilities and in finding adaptation solutions that are acceptable to the local communities. For example, a grant has been provided to the Solomon Island Development Trust (SIDT) supported the Babanakira and Kolina people in enhancing traditional coping strategies to build their resilience to cope with disasters, merging these practices, where necessary, with modern scientific and technical knowledge. Traditional leaders of the Ontong Java and Sikaiana atolls have raised the alarm on low fresh water supply and taro crops not growing well as their islands begin facing the full effects of climate change. Moreover, there are also a number of adaptation programmes still in the proposed state. Current activities include: community initiatives (e.g. raised beds) to address extreme seasonal high tides, sea level rise and soil improvement programmes; mangrove replanting (on a very low scale); rain water harvesting; establishment of root crop bulking and distribution; the introduction of salt tolerant and drought resistant crop varieties; mass propagation of available planting material; and soil improvement programmes. An important contribution at the regional and community level is the Pacific Adaptation to Climate Change Project (PACC). The project is designed to promote climate change adaptation, and is based on the premise that adaptation is a key pre-requisite to sustainable development in Pacific Island Countries. One of the few projects globally to access the Special Climate Change Fund of the GEF, this Regional UNDP/GEF Project covers 13 countries (including the Solomon Islands) and is being implemented by SPREP. The objective of the PACC is to enhance the resilience of a number of key development sectors (food production and food security, water resources management, coastal zone, infrastructure etc.) in the Pacific islands to the adverse effects of climate change. This objective will be achieved by focusing on long-term planned adaptation response measures, strategies and policies. To ensure sustainability of the project, regional and national adaptation financing instruments will also be developed.

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In Cambodia, women make up 65% of farmers, directly contributing to the country's food security and the national agricultural output. They are also the collectors, users and managers of water. Recognition of women’s crucial role as economic and social agents in Cambodia’s water and agricultural sectors is a key starting point for engendering the UNDP’s projects on climate change adaptation. Yet, obstacles continue to limit women’s access to human and financial capital.

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Through its Initial National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Cambodia identified adaptation needs in the priority sectors of agriculture, and forestry. With respect to agriculture, adaptation suggestions in the National Communication include: development of new high-yield crop varieties, improved crop management, warning systems for extreme weather events, and improvement of irrigation. Within the forestry sector, Cambodia suggests the creation of forest plantations on otherwise unproductive lands, conservation of protected areas, and improved forest resource management. The National Communication also discusses adaptation priorities within the area of human health, including education and disease control measures, as well as in coastal zones, including the development of a strategic response to sea level rise including studies of impacts, improved management and capacity building of local residents (MOE, 2002).