Role Of Elections In Indian Democracy
The Role Of Opposition In Democracy Essay
Charles Beitz argues (1989, chap. 7) that single member districtrepresentation encourages moderation in party programs offered forcitizens to consider. This results from the tendency of this kind ofrepresentation towards two party systems. In a two party system withmajority rule, it is argued, each party must appeal to the medianvoter in the political spectrum. Hence, they must moderate theirprograms to appeal to the median voter. Furthermore, they encouragecompromise among groups since they must try to appeal to a lot ofother groups in order to become part of one of the two leadingparties. These tendencies encourage moderation and compromise incitizens to the extent that political parties, and interest groups,hold these qualities up as necessary to functioning well in ademocracy.
The Role Of Opposition In Democracy
Once we approach the idea of citizenship from a moral point of viewand we recognize the importance of a division of labor, the questionarises, what is the appropriate role for a citizen in a democracy? Ifwe think that citizens are too often uninformed we should ask twoquestions. What ought citizens have knowledge about in order tofulfill their role? What standards ought citizens’ beliefs liveup to in order to be adequately supported? Some, such as Dahl in theabove quote, have proposed that citizens know about their particularsectors of society and not others. We have seen that this view has anumber of difficulties. Christiano proposes, along with others, thatcitizens must think about what ends the society ought to aim at andleave the question of how to achieve those aims to experts(Christiano 1996, chap. 5). This kind of view needs to answer to theproblem of how to ensure that politicians, administrators and expertsactually do attempt to realize the aims set by citizens. And it mustshow how institutions can be designed so as to establish the divisionof labor while preserving equality among citizens. But if citizensgenuinely do choose the aims and others faithfully pursue the means toachieving those aims, then citizens are in the driver's seat insociety.