Role Of Elections In Indian Democracy Free Essays

Another consent-based argument for the claim that democracy isnecessary for legitimate authority asserts that when peopleparticipate in the democratic process, by their act of participationthey consent to the outcome, even if it goes against them. Theirparticipation thereby lends legitimacy to the outcome and perhaps evento the democratic assembly that is elected by citizens. On thisaccount, the acts of voting, for example, are also acts of consent tothe outcome of the voting. So participants are thereby obligated tocomply with the decision made by the majority.

Role Of Elections In Indian Democracy

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The Role Of Opposition In Democracy Essay

Charles Beitz argues (1989, chap. 7) that single member districtrepresentation encourages moderation in party programs offered forcitizens to consider. This results from the tendency of this kind ofrepresentation towards two party systems. In a two party system withmajority rule, it is argued, each party must appeal to the medianvoter in the political spectrum. Hence, they must moderate theirprograms to appeal to the median voter. Furthermore, they encouragecompromise among groups since they must try to appeal to a lot ofother groups in order to become part of one of the two leadingparties. These tendencies encourage moderation and compromise incitizens to the extent that political parties, and interest groups,hold these qualities up as necessary to functioning well in ademocracy.

The Role Of Opposition In Democracy

Once we approach the idea of citizenship from a moral point of viewand we recognize the importance of a division of labor, the questionarises, what is the appropriate role for a citizen in a democracy? Ifwe think that citizens are too often uninformed we should ask twoquestions. What ought citizens have knowledge about in order tofulfill their role? What standards ought citizens’ beliefs liveup to in order to be adequately supported? Some, such as Dahl in theabove quote, have proposed that citizens know about their particularsectors of society and not others. We have seen that this view has anumber of difficulties. Christiano proposes, along with others, thatcitizens must think about what ends the society ought to aim at andleave the question of how to achieve those aims to experts(Christiano 1996, chap. 5). This kind of view needs to answer to theproblem of how to ensure that politicians, administrators and expertsactually do attempt to realize the aims set by citizens. And it mustshow how institutions can be designed so as to establish the divisionof labor while preserving equality among citizens. But if citizensgenuinely do choose the aims and others faithfully pursue the means toachieving those aims, then citizens are in the driver's seat insociety.

Role of Media in a Democracy Essay - 1258 Words | …

One approach that is in part motivated by the problem of democraticcitizenship but which attempts to preserve some elements of equalityagainst the elitist criticism is the interest group pluralist accountof politics. Robert Dahl's early statement of the view is verypowerful. “In a rough sense, the essence of all competitivepolitics is bribery of the electorate by politicians… Thefarmer… supports a candidate committed to high price supports,the businessman…supports an advocate of low corporationtaxes… the consumer…votes for candidates opposed to asale tax” (Dahl 1959, p. 69). In this conception of thedemocratic process, each citizen is a member of an interest group withnarrowly defined interests that are closely connected to theireveryday lives. On these subjects citizens are supposed to be quitewell informed and interested in having an influence. Or at least,elites from each of the interest groups that are relatively close inperspective to the ordinary members are the principal agents in theprocess. On this account, democracy is not rule by the majority butrather rule by coalitions of minorities. Policy and law in ademocratic society are decided by means of bargaining among thedifferent groups.

Religion's Role In Preservation Of Freedom In A Democratic Society

So the elite theory of democracy does seem compatible with some of theinstrumentalist arguments given above but it is strongly opposed tothe intrinsic arguments from liberty, public justification andequality. Against the liberty and equality arguments, the elite theorysimply rejects the possibility that citizens can participate asequals. The society must be ruled by elites and the role of citizensis merely to ensure smooth and peaceful circulation of elites. Againstthe public justification view, ordinary citizens cannot be expected toparticipate in public deliberation and the views of elites ought notto be fundamentally transformed by general public deliberation. To besure, it is conceivable for all that has been said that there can bean elite deliberative democracy wherein elites deliberate, perhapseven out of sight of the population at large, on how to run thesociety. Indeed, some deliberative democrats do emphasize deliberationin legislative assemblies though in general deliberative democratsfavor a more broadly egalitarian approach to deliberation, which isvulnerable to the kinds of worries raised by Schumpeter and Downs.

The Role Of Public Opinion In A Democracy English Essays

Joseph Schumpeter's assertion that the “democratic method isthat institutional arrangement for arriving at political decisions inwhich individuals acquire the power to decide by means of acompetitive struggle for the people's vote” (1956, p. 269),still stands as a concise statement of the elitist view. In this view,the emphasis is placed on responsible political leadership. Politicalleaders are to avoid divisive and emotionally charged issues and makepolicy and law with little regard for the fickle and diffuse demandsmade by ordinary citizens. Citizens participate in the process ofcompetition by voting but since they know very little they are noteffectively the ruling part of the society. The process of election isusually just a fairly peaceful way of maintaining or changing thosewho rule.