Mary Montessori, as a way of educating mentally disabled children.
Verbalization with young child essay
A complex text can be any written, visual, audio, or multimedia message that conveys information or ideas for learning purposes. Complexity varies, of course. A text can be complex for some students and not complex for others. More often than not, grade-level texts in school are complex for academic English learners and others who have not been exposed to the wide ranges of ways that authors of school texts use text structure, and vocabulary to communicate their messages. (p. 63)
Clc Teaching Self Advocacy Education Essay
When teaching for understanding, a unit or course design incorporates instruction andassessment that reflects six facets of understanding. Students areprovided opportunities to explain, interpret, apply, shift perspective,empathize, and self-assess (McTighe & Seif, 2002). Framing the essential or BIG questions in a unit is an important skill for educators to acquire, as these questions offer the organizing focus for a unit. Tomlinson and McTighe (2006) suggested two to five essential questions per unit, which are written at age-appropriate levels and sequenced so that one leads to the next. Students need to understand key vocabulary associated with those questions.
Verbalization and children's self-regulated learning
Per the Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation (2017), cognitive load theory supports the use of worked examples. Researchers who have replicated the "worked example effect" have found that "novice learners who are given worked examples to study perform better on subsequent tests than learners who are required to solve the equivalent problems themselves" (p. 7). Further, "unguided problem-solving places a heavy burden on working memory, inhibiting the ability of the learner to transfer the information into their long-term memory. The learner may effectively solve the problem, but because their working memory was overloaded they may not recognise and remember the rule that would allow them to quickly solve the same problem again in the future" (p. 7). There is a caveat, however. "While cognitive load theory supports fully guided instruction for novice learners, it also supports the gradual incorporation of more independent problem-solving tasks as learners gain expertise." Worked examples might actually become less effective or redundant, as learners gain expertise (p. 7).
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11, 347-369
National Mathematics Advisory Panel. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from