Essay on scientific discoveries of 20th century
Scientific Discoveries of the 19th Century - WriteWork
In its simplest form what takes place here is the indication to one individual byanother of an object which is of moment in their co-operative activity. This gesturebecomes symbolic when it arouses in the individuals the attitudes which reaction to theobjects involves, together, generally, with some imagery of the result of that action. Itbecomes communication when the individual indicating the object takes also the attitude ofthe individual to whom he is indicating it plus that of his response, while the individualto whom the object is indicated takes the attitude of him who is indicating it. We callthis taking of one anothers' attitudes consciousness of what we are doing and of what theother is doing, and we incorrectly apply the term "knowledge" to this. Themechanism and import of this social procedure will be discussed later. What I wish topoint out at present is that this process in itself does not involve discovery, any morethan does that of perception. When doubt and discrepancies arise in the process ofcommunication, as they continually do arise, the necessity of establishing agreementbetween the symbols mutually used, and that which they symbolize and the results of theconduct they imply, calls for a one to one correspondence between the symbols and thosethings and characters symbolized in the experiences of the different individuals, and thisgives rise to the theory of knowledge as an agreement between the state of mind and thatwhich is known. Such a determination of mutual agreement in co-operative conduct is indeedessential not only to this conduct but to what is called "thinking" in theindividual, but it is not a discovery of that which needs to he known. It is at most apart of the technique by which the discovery is made. When the discrepancy arises, we mustdiscover what the import of the symbols is, and here real knowledge takes place. We findout what the other person is referring to-in common parlance, what he means but theprocess can go on without discrepancies. The other indicates to us what is there, and ourso-called consciousness of this
Scientific Discoveries of the 19th Century
It is true that all acquirement of information, in so far as it is more than a mereparrot-like facility in repeating what is read or heard, is a reflective process in whicha problematic situation is met with discovery, though the hypotheses and their tests arethose of others. Our own hypotheses and tests have to do largely with the competence ofthe sources upon which we draw. Admitting, however, all the criticism that the layman canbring to his education, this world of knowledge is evidently of quite a differentcharacter from the world that is there, the world that is seen and felt, whose reality isthe touchstone of our discoveries and inventions, and very different from the discoveriesand inventions themselves, which are the knowledge par excellence of research science.