After his studies at Trinity College, Cambridge and Gray'sInn, London, Bacon did not take up a post at a university, but insteadtried to start a political career. Although his efforts were notcrowned with success during the era of Queen Elizabeth, under James Ihe rose to the highest political office, Lord Chancellor. Bacon'sinternational fame and influence spread during his last years, when hewas able to focus his energies exclusively on his philosophical work,and even more so after his death, when English scientists of the Boylecircle (Invisible College) took up his idea of a cooperativeresearch institution in their plans and preparations for establishingthe Royal Society.

Essay on scientific discoveries of 20th century


Scientific Discoveries of the 19th Century - WriteWork

In its simplest form what takes place here is the indication to one individual byanother of an object which is of moment in their co-operative activity. This gesturebecomes symbolic when it arouses in the individuals the attitudes which reaction to theobjects involves, together, generally, with some imagery of the result of that action. Itbecomes communication when the individual indicating the object takes also the attitude ofthe individual to whom he is indicating it plus that of his response, while the individualto whom the object is indicated takes the attitude of him who is indicating it. We callthis taking of one anothers' attitudes consciousness of what we are doing and of what theother is doing, and we incorrectly apply the term "knowledge" to this. Themechanism and import of this social procedure will be discussed later. What I wish topoint out at present is that this process in itself does not involve discovery, any morethan does that of perception. When doubt and discrepancies arise in the process ofcommunication, as they continually do arise, the necessity of establishing agreementbetween the symbols mutually used, and that which they symbolize and the results of theconduct they imply, calls for a one to one correspondence between the symbols and thosethings and characters symbolized in the experiences of the different individuals, and thisgives rise to the theory of knowledge as an agreement between the state of mind and thatwhich is known. Such a determination of mutual agreement in co-operative conduct is indeedessential not only to this conduct but to what is called "thinking" in theindividual, but it is not a discovery of that which needs to he known. It is at most apart of the technique by which the discovery is made. When the discrepancy arises, we mustdiscover what the import of the symbols is, and here real knowledge takes place. We findout what the other person is referring to-in common parlance, what he means but theprocess can go on without discrepancies. The other indicates to us what is there, and ourso-called consciousness of this

Scientific Discoveries of the 19th Century

It is true that all acquirement of information, in so far as it is more than a mereparrot-like facility in repeating what is read or heard, is a reflective process in whicha problematic situation is met with discovery, though the hypotheses and their tests arethose of others. Our own hypotheses and tests have to do largely with the competence ofthe sources upon which we draw. Admitting, however, all the criticism that the layman canbring to his education, this world of knowledge is evidently of quite a differentcharacter from the world that is there, the world that is seen and felt, whose reality isthe touchstone of our discoveries and inventions, and very different from the discoveriesand inventions themselves, which are the knowledge par excellence of research science.

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In 1593 Bacon fell out favor with the queen on account of hisrefusal to comply with her request for funds from Parliament. Althoughhe did not vote against granting three subsidies to the government, hedemanded that these should be paid over a period six, rather thanthree, years. This led Sir Robert Cecil and Sir Walter Raleigh to argueagainst him in Parliament. Bacon's patron, the Earl of Essex, forwhom he had already served as a close political advisor and informer,was not able to mollify the queen's anger over the subsidies; andall Essex's attempts to secure a high post for Bacon(attorney-general or solicitor-general) came to nothing. Nevertheless,the queen valued Bacon's competence as a man of law. He wasinvolved in the treason trial of Roderigo Lopez and later on in theproceedings against the Earl of Essex. In his contribution to theGesta Grayorum (the traditional Christmas revels held inGray's Inn) of 1594–5, Bacon had emphasized the necessity ofscientific improvement and progress. Since he failed to secure forhimself a position in the government, he considered thepossibility of giving up politics and concentrating on naturalphilosophy. It is no wonder, then, that Bacon engaged in many scholarlyand literary pursuits in the 1590s. His letters of advice to the Earlof Rutland and to the Earl of Essex should be mentioned in thiscontext. The advice given to Essex is of particular importance becauseBacon recommended that he should behave in a careful and intelligentmanner in public, above all abstaining from aspiring to militarycommands. Bacon also worked in this phase of his career for thereform of English law. In 1597 his first book was published, theseminal version of his Essays, which contained only ten pieces(Klein 2004b). His financial situation was still insecure; but hisplan to marry the rich widow Lady Hatton failed because she wassuccessfully courted by Sir Edward Coke. In 1598 Bacon was unable tosell his reversion of the Star Chamber clerkship, so that he wasimprisoned for a short time on account of his debts. His parliamentaryactivities in 1597–98, mainly involving committee work, wereimpressive; but when the Earl of Essex in 1599 took command of theattempt to pacify the Irish rebels, Bacon's hopes sank. Essex didnot solve the Irish question, returned to court and fell from grace, asBacon had anticipated he would. He therefore lost a valuable patron andspokesman for his projects. Bacon tried to reconcile the queen andEssex; but when the earl rebelled against the crown in 1601, he coulddo nothing to help him. The queen ordered Bacon to participate in thetreason trial against Essex. In 1601 Bacon sat in Elizabeth'slast parliament, playing an extremely active role.

A discussion of the possible negative future ramifications of today's scientific discoveries.

essays about scientific discoveries

Are scientists becoming too specialized? I mean I hear all about interdisciplinary research, but it often is a chemist showing a synthesis and then the results of an assay that someone else completed and they the chemist can’t explain (but look at the difference in potency), or vice versa for the biologist.
I’ve always felt that the problem with this size of study is that with enough data you will eventually be able to conclude something, or give an insightful analysis etc. Unless we come back with serious questions and force people doing this research to drill down to what these data points mean, then we will continue to not get anything truly useful from the research.

Scientific Discoveries essay.

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But the original Hebrew word has more meanings than that. can mean the planet, the land and its inhabitants, ground, soil, country, or territory (Zodhiates, page 1600-1601). When the late Menachem Begin and other Zionists speak of , or Greater Israel, they are referring to Israel's pre-1967 boundaries plus Jerusalem and the West Bank of the Jordan River. They are not laying claim to the Himalayas. If we understand to mean the region of the Middle East, then the story of Noah's flood does not have to cover Mt. Everest at 29,028 feet.Let the Earth Bring Forth.
The phrase "let the earth bring forth..." occurs three times in Genesis 1 (verses 11, 20 with water, 24). It does not refer to simple growth from nutrients, because this chapter is about creation. The literal meaning of this phrase matches theistic evolution better than any other creation theory! It's almost a definition of theistic evolution, which is why I put it at the top of this essay. God commanded the earth to produce animals, and the planet did so according to His command.These verses contradict the idea of direct creation of non-human life forms. Carnivores
There are several verses in Genesis that are taken to mean that animals were vegetarian until the Flood. Genesis 1:30 states: "And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so." After the Flood, God states in Genesis 9:3 "Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things."I like the idea expressed in Genesis 1:30 of God's providence for all creatures. I also like the idea of the Peaceable Kingdom, where the lion lies down with the lamb and there is no violence. We don't have a clear indication of when the carnivorous animals switched to eating meat, because Genesis 9:3 refers only to mankind. Job 39:27-30 could indicate that eagles were created as carnivorous animals, but it's not clear enough by itself. I have looked at the sharp teeth of a Tyrannosaurus rex, and they don't look like something created by an to chew vegetation. Since I understand the references to death in Romans 5:12 to mean spiritual death, the presence of carnivorous animals does not pose a theological problem. This issue is not essential for salvation. I simply don't know how Genesis 1:30 fits in with what I can observe about animals. When taken with verse 29, the two verses could be merely a description of who gets to eat what kind of vegetation (man - seeds and fruit, animals and birds - grasses and plants). I do know that verse 30 occurs in a section that describes God's providence for all creatures, and that is the faith message I can take from it.With regard to pre-history and evolution, we do not know how long satan has been allowed some measure of influence and interference in the world. The Garden of Eden sounds somewhat like a sanctuary set up by God to guard Adam and Eve against the outside world. Was there trouble and danger out there even before the Fall of Mankind?In any case, the creation account in Genesis 1-2 is incomplete. Astronomy shows us this in a spectacular fashion. I think that the biological account in Genesis is also incomplete. Who can completely describe the mighty work of creation in just 2 chapters? Not Moses, nor any other possible human author of Genesis. God Almighty rested for the only time recorded in the Bible! I think there is a lot more that happened historically than just those relatively few words in Genesis 1-2. I think a few sentences cover millions of historical years, such as in Genesis 2:7: "The time came when the Lord God formed a man's body from the dust of the ground and breathed into it the breath of life. And man became a living person."Is the Bible incomplete? Yes, John says so at the end of his Gospel, in 20:30-31: "There were many other signs that Jesus worked and the disciples saw, but they are not recorded in this book. These are recorded so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing this you may have life through his name." John repeats the "incomplete" assertion in 21:25: "There were many other things that Jesus did; if all were written down, the world itself, I suppose, would not hold all the books that would have to be written."What we have is sufficient for Faith. The details left out are interesting, but they are not needed for Faith and Salvation. So we need not worry about the Bible being incomplete. We have enough testimony, both for our own faith and to witness to the world. I don't usually grind through the beginning of Genesis verse by verse, trying to match each one individually with a scientific or historical finding. I think that that approach obscures the greater faith message of the Author.