Pandemic Influenza: An Invective Essay
Definition and Examples of Invective in English - …
Despite general impressions to the contrary, the intellectual life of the colonists in what would become the southern states was rich and varied. In the political and cultural center of Williamsburg citizens attended the theater, gave concerts for each other, built well-designed houses with beautifully patterned gardens, collected selective but impressive libraries, wrote articulate and well-argued letters to friends at home and abroad, read classical authors in the original Greek and Latin, and engaged in political and religious debate. Colonial authors expressed themselves in poetry and prose, satire and invective, essays and pamphlets. Noteworthy published works of the period include the translation into heroic couplets of Ovid's (1626) by George Sandys, Jamestown treasurer and director of industry and agriculture; a humorous prose account of colonial life interspersed with lively poetry, (1966), by indentured servant George Alsop; the engaging first history of Virginia, (1705), written by a plantation owner and member of the House of Burgesses, Robert Beverley; (1708), a verse satire by poet laureate of early Maryland, Ebenezer Cooke whose point of view and low-life subject matter were precursors of the southern humor tradition; the two very early novels written by the master of grammar school and professor at the College of William and Mary, Arthur Blackamore, (1720) and (1723); and the works of New Light Presbyterian minister and later president of Princeton University, Samuel Davies, who composed hymns, elegies, sermons, and poems, many of the last of which were collected in (1752).
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Building on scholarship on Horace’s attribution of weakness to himself in the , this article finds a parallel for that practice, and for modern scholars’ analyses of it, in Quintilian’s theory of invective, which allows that , , and lack of may be advantageous for the orator. This comparison allows us to recognize Horace as a rhetorical innovator who, in response to the political upheaval of the civil wars, transforms not only poetic but also oratorical traditions of invective. It also deepens our understanding of the function of poetic models in Quintilian’s treatise.