As reflected in the works of select black South African artists

In preliterate societies oral literature was widely shared; it saturated the society and was as much a part of living as food, clothing, shelter, or religion. In barbaric societies, the minstrel might be a courtier of the king or chieftain, and the poet who composed liturgies might be a priest. But the oral performance itself was accessible to the whole community. As society evolved its various social layers, or classes, an “elite” literature began to be distinguishable from the “folk” literature of the people. With the invention of writing this separation was accelerated until finally literature was being experienced individually by the elite (reading a book), while folklore and folk song were experienced orally and more or less collectively by the illiterate common people.

RISING UP/UPRISING: Twentieth Century African American Art

Recently, archaeological explorations have become the main contributors of African Art history.

Beyond the Spectrum: Abstraction in African American Art, 1950-1975

Larry and Brenda Thompson Collection, David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Action / Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art: 1940-1976, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Abstract Expressionism: Further Evidence (Part One: Painting), Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, LLC, New York, NY

One of these so-called folk artists, the

African American Art: 200 Years, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, LLC, New York, NY
Action/Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art, 1940-1976, The Jewish Museum, New York, NY
Abstract Expressionism: A World Elsewhere, Haunch of Venison, New York, NY
Beyond the Canon: Small-Scale American Abstraction, 1945-1965, Robert Miller Gallery, New York, NY

A specific word for art did not exist in languages of most traditional African people.

Can people classify him as an artist if no one sees his work.

In Africa, most lost-wax bronze castings, for example, require a highly specialized production technique and although it is not an art entirely restricted to kingdoms, it receives its greatest elaboration where the chief or a wealthy caste can afford to maintain a group of specialized artists.

One might raise the question however: What is the purpose of art.

Hippolyte Taine, the nineteenth-century French critic, evolved an ecological theory of literature. He looked first and foremost to the national characteristics of western European literatures, and he found the source of these characteristics in the climate and soil of each respective nation. His (5 vols., 1863-1869) is an extensive elaboration of these ideas. It is doubtful that anyone today would agree with the simplistic terms in which Taine states his thesis. It is obvious that Russian literature differs from English or French from German. English books are written by Englishmen, their scenes are commonly laid in England, they are usually about Englishmen and they are designed to be read by Englishmen — at least in the first instance. But modern civilization becomes more and more a world civilization, wherein works of all peoples flow into a general fund of literature. It is not unusual to read a novel by a Japanese author one week and one by a black writer from West Africa the next. Writers are themselves affected by this cross-fertilization. Certainly, the work of the great nineteenth-century Russian novelists has had more influence on twentieth-century American writers than has the work of their own literary ancestors. Poetry does not circulate so readily, because catching its true significance in translation is so very difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, for the past hundred years or so, the influence of French poetry upon all the literatures of the civilized world has not just been important, it has been preeminent. The tendentious elements of literature — propaganda for race, nation, or religion — have been more and more eroded in this process of wholesale cultural exchange.

Segregated Seattle Dwight D Eisenhower s Mother Ida mother to the first African American president

(Note: For North African funerary art, and temple design, see: .)

Upon my arrival I witness the table set for five, complete with imported European coffee, buttered toast, maple syrup, fresh squeezed orange juice, and a stack of pancakes so tall it continues to wobble trying to find a center of gravity.

Look at the artifacts on this web site, and around you, as reminders of the complexity of the past.

That`s the reason singers are referred to as artists.

JOHNSON, Charles Sebree, and Eldzier Cortor—achieved a measure of success in the larger world of art as well, often fusing the style preferences of the day (color abstraction, figural expressionism, and surrealism) with the artists’ affinities for selected African American subjects.

In contrast, black artisans like the New England–based engraver SCIPIO MOORHEAD and the

Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research,

In Benin the privilege of working bronze was reserved for a special corporation who lived in a special quarter of the town and who came under the control of the - the ruler.