RISING UP/UPRISING: Twentieth Century African American Art
Beyond the Spectrum: Abstraction in African American Art, 1950-1975
Larry and Brenda Thompson Collection, David C. Driskell Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD
Action / Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art: 1940-1976, Albright Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Abstract Expressionism: Further Evidence (Part One: Painting), Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, LLC, New York, NY
One of these so-called folk artists, the
African American Art: 200 Years, Michael Rosenfeld Gallery, LLC, New York, NY
Action/Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art, 1940-1976, The Jewish Museum, New York, NY
Abstract Expressionism: A World Elsewhere, Haunch of Venison, New York, NY
Beyond the Canon: Small-Scale American Abstraction, 1945-1965, Robert Miller Gallery, New York, NY
Can people classify him as an artist if no one sees his work.
In Africa, most lost-wax bronze castings, for example, require a highly specialized production technique and although it is not an art entirely restricted to kingdoms, it receives its greatest elaboration where the chief or a wealthy caste can afford to maintain a group of specialized artists.
One might raise the question however: What is the purpose of art.
Hippolyte Taine, the nineteenth-century French critic, evolved an ecological theory of literature. He looked first and foremost to the national characteristics of western European literatures, and he found the source of these characteristics in the climate and soil of each respective nation. His (5 vols., 1863-1869) is an extensive elaboration of these ideas. It is doubtful that anyone today would agree with the simplistic terms in which Taine states his thesis. It is obvious that Russian literature differs from English or French from German. English books are written by Englishmen, their scenes are commonly laid in England, they are usually about Englishmen and they are designed to be read by Englishmen at least in the first instance. But modern civilization becomes more and more a world civilization, wherein works of all peoples flow into a general fund of literature. It is not unusual to read a novel by a Japanese author one week and one by a black writer from West Africa the next. Writers are themselves affected by this cross-fertilization. Certainly, the work of the great nineteenth-century Russian novelists has had more influence on twentieth-century American writers than has the work of their own literary ancestors. Poetry does not circulate so readily, because catching its true significance in translation is so very difficult to accomplish. Nevertheless, for the past hundred years or so, the influence of French poetry upon all the literatures of the civilized world has not just been important, it has been preeminent. The tendentious elements of literature propaganda for race, nation, or religion have been more and more eroded in this process of wholesale cultural exchange.