Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes

After suppressing his World, Descartes decided to putforward, anonymously, a limited sample of his new philosophy, in theDiscourse with its attached essays. The Discourserecounted Descartes' own life journey, explaining how he had come tothe position of doubting his previous knowledge and seeking to beginafresh. It offered some initial results of his metaphysicalinvestigations, including mind–body dualism. It did not, however,engage in the deep skepticism of the later Meditations, nordid it claim to establish, metaphysically, that the essence of matteris extension. This last conclusion was presented merely as a hypothesiswhose fruitfulness could be tested and proven by way of its results, ascontained in the attached essays on Dioptrics andMeteorology. The latter subject area comprised“atmospheric” phenomena. In his Meteorology,Descartes described his general hypothesis about the nature of matter,before continuing on to provide accounts of vapors, salt, winds,clouds, snow, rain, hail, lightning, the rainbow, coronas, andparhelia.

Essays on the Philosophy and Science of Ren~ Descartes.

Rene Descartes - Papers & essays analyzing his Meditations and other philosophies

Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes …

While stationed at Breda, Descartes met IsaacBeeckman (1588–1637). Notes that Descartes kept related to hiscorrespondence reveal that he and Beeckman had become more than simpleacquaintances—their relationship was more one of teacher and student(Descartes being the latter). This relationship would rekindle inDescartes an intense interest in the sciences. In addition todiscussions about a wide variety of topics in natural science, a directresult of certain questions posed by Beeckman compelled Descartes towrite the Compendium Musicae. Among other things, theCompendium attempted to work out a theory of harmony rootedin the concepts of proportion or ratio, which (along the lines of theancients) attempted to express the notion of harmony in mathematicalterms. It would not be published during Descartes' lifetime. As forBeeckman, Descartes would later downplay his influence.

Essays on the philosophy and science of Rene Descartes

After Descartes left the army, in 1619, his whereabouts for the nextfew years are unknown. Based on what he says in the Discours de laMethode (Discourse on the Method), published in 1637,there is speculation that he spent time near Ulm (Descartes apparentlyattended the coronation of Ferdinand II in Frankfurt in 1619). There issome evidence suggesting that he was in France in 1622, for itwas at this time that property he had inherited was sold—the proceedsof which would provide him a simple income for many years. There issome speculation that between 1623 and 1625 he visited Italy. Descartesemerges in 1625 in Paris, his notes revealing that he was in contactwith Father Marin Mersenne (1588–1648), a member of the Order ofMinims. This relationship would prompt Descartes to make public histhoughts on natural philosophy (science). It is by way of Mersenne thatDescartes' work would find its way into the hands of some of the bestminds living in Paris--for instance, Antoine Arnauld (1612–1694), PierreGassendi (1592–1655), and Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679).

Nature, and God in Descartes,”, in Essays on the Philosophy and Science of Rene Descartes, ..
Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes (review) Laura Keating

Descartes, Rene | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Descartes' work on visual perception is but one instance of his adopting a naturalistic stance toward conscious mental experience in seekingto explain aspects of such experience. The Passions constituteanother. It is sometimes said that Descartes' dualismplaced the mind outside nature by rendering it as an immaterial substance. That is a retrospective judgment from a perspective in which immaterial substances are automatically deemed “unnatural.” ForDescartes and his followers, mind–body interaction and its laws were included within the domain of natural philosophy or physics (in the general meaning of the latter term, as the theory of nature). Descartesspoke of regular relations between brain states and the resultingsensory experiences, which his followers, such as Regis,subsequently deemed “laws” of mind–body relation (see Hatfield 2000). In this way, Descartes and his followers posited the existence of psychophysical orpsychophysiological laws, long before Gustav Fechner (1801–87) formulated a science of psychophysics in the nineteenth century.

On Jan 1, 2011 S. Voss published: Essays on the Philosophy and Science of René Descartes

Scholastic philosophy and science was incapable of ..

Aristotle's philosophy was approached through textbook presentationsand commentaries on Aristotle's works. Aristotle himself frequentlydiscussed the positions of his ancient predecessors. The mostextensive commentaries also elaborated in some detail on positionsother than Aristotle's. Within this framework, and taking into accountthe reading of Cicero, Descartes would have been exposed in school tothe doctrines of the ancient atomists, Plato, and the Stoics, and hewould have heard of the skeptics. Further, important intellectualevents were known at La Flèche, including the discovery of themoons of Jupiter by Galileo in 1610. Hence, although scholasticAristotelian philosophy was dominant in his school years, it was notthe only type of philosophy that he knew.

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science and mathematics for eight years.

Rene Descartes influenced substantially western philosophy as well as science. His philosophical views laid the foundation to many modern scientific principles. In such a context, his famous idea “cognito ergo sum” (I think than I am) was one of the main ideas that stimulated and guided the development of science based on critical rationalism. In fact, “Discourse on Method”, being one of the major works by Rene Descartes reveals his views on the method he considered to be essential in regard to scientific knowledge. To put it more precisely, Rene Descartes stood on the ground that it was important to conduct analysis on the principle of deduction and critical evaluation. In such a way, he stood on the rationalist ground and believed that the truth can be found and correct judgments can be made only on the condition of the application of his method, which was based on principles of deduction.