What Is Into Thin Air Essay Questions?
From about 32 kya to 22 kya, prevailed in Europe. That culture produced the and art such as the . By 20 kya, . But as far as human expansion is concerned, the Gravettian (and related cultures) are most notorious as mammoth hunters extraordinaire for those that lived on the near the ice sheets. To , they could not swim to Sahul, but flourished everywhere else they could get to. At , they were the ultimate hunter-gatherer kill. Also, near the ice sheets, meat could be stored in the ground. Cro-Magnons did just that, and that “freezer” full of meat led to the first seasonally sedentary humans. It long predated the Domestication Revolution when people could be sedentary year-round, but while the megafauna lasted, the first signs of what came later appeared as Cro-Magnons created villages around frozen mammoth meat. Gravettians hunted along migration routes and set traps and ambushes for mammoths. For thousands of years, mammoths were the primary focus of Gravettian hunters, and many scientists believe that humans at least . Gravettians probably used the bow and arrow, and using poisoned arrows on mammoths would have been child’s play, not a hazardous undertaking. They also tended to focus on the easy meat: the young, relatively defenseless, tender mammoths. Killing the offspring alone would have driven the slowly reproducing mammoths to extinction, and as the interglacial period began around 15 kya, there would have been new pressures on mammoths. One of them was that fewer mammoths meant that they were not terraforming their environments like they used to, and the warming climate probably reduced their range. For a mammoth facing humans, there was literally no place to hide (except maybe in the living room), and there is little reason to think that hunters would have eased up when mammoth numbers dwindled. If anything, their efforts would have to get the last ones, as they competed and fought over the final mammoths. In one lifetime or even several, the changes would have been barely noticeable, if at all. There was simply no way out for mammoths, and they went extinct south of the European ice sheets under the ministrations of Cro-Magnon hunters. More evidence of their fate is some mammoths surviving in refugia: islands where humans did not arrive until thousands of years later. mammoths survived on in the chain off of Alaska until less than six kya, and went extinct when humans arrived. Several hundred apparently full-sized mammoths survived on near Siberia and went extinct less than five kya, when humans arrived. In today's France and Spain, Gravettians also semi-settled along the migration routes of reindeer and red deer. From Spain across Europe, into today's Russia, Gravettians hunted migrating herds, and not only the mammoth was driven to extinction, but also the wooly rhino, the Irish elk, the musk ox, and steppe bison were driven to extinction as the ice sheets retreated. Neanderthals had been ambush hunting in similar fashion, and those animals, like the African megafauna, grew wary of humans, and killing those animals probably took planning and guile.
Into Thin Air Essay Questions: Pros And Cons
Suffering quotes from Into Thin Air book; quotes about Suffering
In the Western Hemisphere, Africa, and Eurasia, the five-to-seven metric ton herbivores and the predators that hunted them became , but in marsupial-dominated Australia they were a little smaller, and the largest marsupial ever, , reached “only” about three metric tons. Australian animals enjoyed about , and large herbivore/predator guilds thrived there as they did elsewhere. After appearing about 1.6 mya, quickly went extinct about 46 kya, and their bones have been . The next largest denizen of did. Megafauna are variously defined as animals weighing at least 45 or 100 kilograms, which is about as massive as humans. About 90% of Australia’s megafauna went extinct soon after humans arrived. , a , a , and so on. A number had , to go extinct shortly after humans arrived. The is horrifically impressive. I have yet to see a disinterested scientist or academic deny the idea that humans were primarily responsible, and almost certainly responsible, for Australian megafauna extinctions. When a “referee” , which assessed the state of the debate, the authors attributed Australian megafauna extinctions entirely to humans. There is evidence that those early Australians engaged in setting great fires. On Borneo, about the same time that humans first invaded Australia, near , humans also burned the forests with abandon, as they probably tried to transform the rainforest environment into something friendlier to humans.
SparkNotes: Into Thin Air: Important Quotations Explained
Later, palaces appeared, and Sumerian palaces and their related elites are seen today as more of an intrusive dynamic from rural societies, as a kind of invasion and conquest rather than a natural outcome of Sumerian urban life. The elite arguably performed some kind of exchange function, but a common idea among anthropologists is that elites became elites , not because they performed a necessary societal function. In early cities, elites usually arose from new professional classes that created and controlled markets. In early Mesopotamian states, palace activities were largely centered around elite lifestyles, not administering state functions. Sumer was the first pristine state, and when , something like happened. They all had similar features, which included: male domination, divinely sanctioned heads of state with harems and other extravagances in their capital cities, including elite-aggrandizing monumental architecture, forced servitude, human sacrifice and/or public executions to terrorize the populace into submission, conscripted “cannon fodder” infantry led by elite officers, fortified cities, taxation, and so on. All pristine states passed through similar developmental stages, and some features appeared earlier or later than others, with minor variation among their attributes, but they all had remarkable resemblances, which probably reflected human “nature,” in which everywhere reacted to analogous economic conditions in comparable fashion.