ACYROLOGIA: Also called acyrology, see discussion under .

ACYRON: The improper or odd application of a word, such as speaking of "streams of graces" (Shipley 5). When the result is humorous or deliberately absurd, the acyron becomes a .

ADAGE: A proverb or wise saying.

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ADAGY: The act of speaking or writing in adages.

A clear and common understanding of the language we use and of our attributions of moral status will be of the highest importance to the success of our search for a common ground in this ES cell research debate. While I believe the moral imperative of compassion drives ES cell research, there are multiple values and goals which I recommend we appeal to in our deliberations. Mary Anne Warren’s multi-criterial approach enables us, through common-sense justifications, to embrace and honor these various and important values. If it is true that ES cell therapies have the potential to alleviate ill-health and to protect the lives of more than half of the world’s populationwhile not wrongfully impinging upon the interests or rights of others, then it is our duty to pursue this research in a vigorous, yet disciplined, manner. To unnecessarily prevent or delay such a valuable line of research is to act unethically.

The International Hospitality Academy

As an example, note General Counsel to the NIH, Harriet Raab’s, decision to circumvent the current legislative ban on embryo research (See Timeline in Appendix II). Even the NBAC suggests that the derivation and use of embryonic stem cells are not “distinct ethical activities.”

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Every human being has a right to life.

AUGUSTINIAN TIME: Saint Augustine's idea of eternity, in which eternity and the afterlife are not an endless linear continuation--like a book with infinite pages or a story that never ends--but rather a state of timelessness, in which no time ever passes at all--a frozen snapshot of joy that lasts forever but which cannot undergo progression, alteration, or further development. Augustine inherited a tradition in Greek philosophy in which perfection would be an absolute. If something is perfect, by definition it cannot be improved further. Thus, any change that occur in a state of perfection would render that state imperfect. But if change happened to God or to heaven, wouldn't that force the already-perfect state to become imperfect?

A human embryo is a human being.

ATLANTIS MYTH: A motif common in mythology in which an ancient, wise, or powerful civilization once existed in a past golden age but floods destroyed it. Plato popularized the myth in his works Timeaus and Critias, where he describes the arrogant island of Atlantis as an adversary of Greek civilization 9,000 years before his own day, but the gods disfavor the island's , and they submerge it into the Atlantic Ocean. Although Plato's references are brief, they have inspired some archeologists to link it with the Island of Thera (which was destroyed by volcanic erruption that triggered tidal waves devastating Minoan civilization in 1900 BCE). Likewise, they have inspired fiction writers to produce a number of later fantastic works. The allegorical aspects of the island influence Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Thomas More's Utopia, and Stephen Lawhead's Taliesin. Among the Inklings, it plays a part in C.S. Lewis's The Magician's Nephew, where dust from Atlantis serves as a component of magical rings, as well as in Lewis's space trilogy. C.S. Lewis also uses it as a comparison to being overwhelmed by grief in his autobiography, Surprised by Joy. Charles Williams plays with the motif in Taliessin Through Logres. Other like J.R.R. Tolkien use the myth indirectly, as Tolkien uses it as an analogue in The Silmarillion, in which Númenor was a huge island in the Sundering Sea, west of Middle-Earth. These Númenorians grew obsessed with the search for immortality, and eventually their culture died when their island sank. In medieval legends, other analogues to the Atlantis myth include the legends of Logres and Lyonesse (which medieval tales located in the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Cornwall and Landsend), and older appear in Mesopotamian and Hebrew myth such as in the Old Testament accounts of the flood. A common erroneous claim is that flood myths are universal world-wide, though it actual point of fact, legends in which the world or a civilization die in floods primarily appear in cultures in geographic areas subject to regional flooding. Areas without such flooding do not tend to have Atlantis myths or flood myths.

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In general, these are inductive arguments in which the thinker puts forth a belief or proposition as a universal rule she or he puts forth in response to an example seen in nature--the specific observed example comes first, and the logical argument follows on a universal level later.

ACCENTUAL VERSE: A verse pattern used heavily in Russian and Czech literature. More information TBA


AZBUKA: The alphabet derived from Old Church Slavonic language, common in Russian and other slavic languages, alias the Cyrillic alphabet. See .

, Graduate Student, California State University, Long BeachDecember 13, 2000

It has full moral status, so allow no stem cell research

I believe these last moves by Warren offer a methodology with which a utilitarian framework can be created. Since I take utilitarianism to be a most understandable, practical, and defensible position, I encountered Warren’s work with great pleasure. The greatest objection I have always had towards utilitarianism has been its inability to account for human rights. But how, you may ask, can a utilitarian model account for moral rights such as liberty, justice, and equality when practical necessity dictates otherwise or the expected gain in the greatest happiness is sacrificed? Warren’s answer is that this is done based on a utilitarian argument that the “Agent’s Rights” principle has long-term social value and good. Thus, there are utilitarian reasons for adopting a non-classical utilitarian principle.