"100 Persuasive Essay Topics." ThoughtCo, Feb.
"100 Persuasive Essay Topics." ThoughtCo.
The other critical innovation was the modern steam engine, which was intimately related to coal. Burgeoning coal mines quickly exhausted deposits above the water table and began digging deeply into the earth, and water in the mines became a great problem. Not only were floods killing miners, but standing water made mines inoperable. Romans pumped water from their mines (). So did British mining operations, and around 1710, combined the ideas of a and an to make the , to pump water from coal mines. In a parallel case of using coal for smelting, the coal-fired Newcomen engine was . It was the first of its kind, primitive compared to later engines, and its spread was gradual. . He eventually invented an improved version with a that was . The steam engine that powered the Industrial Revolution was thus born, although, as with coal, its spread was gradual, and wind and water power were competitive with coal for nearly a century. The hydrocarbon-fueled steam engine was the key to the Industrial Revolution, in which the energy of ancient sunlight was exploited to generate previously unimaginable power. A steam locomotive of 1850 roaring through the English countryside would have been inconceivable to an English peasant of 1500. From a to to to less than five hundred years, the duration of each Epochal Event continued to shrink as levels of energy use increased dramatically and with each event.
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Agricultural output increased, England’s population rose, and those dispossessed peasants toiled in English mines and mills. A common misconception regarding the Industrial Revolution is that it was an urban phenomenon, but it really began in the countryside, where the energy was. England’s watermills, necessarily located along rural rivers and streams, powered the cotton-spinning machines tended by dispossessed peasants, which turned England into the world’s workshop well before 1800. England had nearly a century’s lead on its rivals, and was eventually supplanted atop the global imperial hierarchy by its descendent and rival, the USA. London played little role in early industrialization, similar to a parasite like Rome. The cotton spinning machine was the iconic technology of the early Industrial Revolution, but two events in the early 1700s had greater ultimate importance: using , and . The stage was thus set for machines that could be built and powered by hydrocarbon energy, which is still the foundation of today’s global industrial economy, more than three centuries later. With those events, the Industrial Revolution began.