Decline of the Roman Empire Essay

For several million years, life in the Eocene was halcyonic, and at 50 mya, the state had prevailed ever since the 250 mya. But just as , Earth began cooling off. The ultimate reason was atmospheric carbon dioxide levels that had been steadily declining for tens of millions of years. The intense volcanism of the previous 200 million years waned and the inexorably sequestered carbon into Earth’s crust and mantle. While falling carbon dioxide levels were the ultimate cause, the first proximate cause was probably the isolation of Antarctica at the South Pole and changes in global ocean currents. During the early Eocene, the global ocean floor’s water temperature was about 13oC (55oF), warm enough to swim in, which was a far cry from today’s near-freezing and below-freezing temperatures. The North Sea was warm as bathwater. Radical , warming the ocean floor, and . Whatever the causes were, the oceans were warm from top to bottom, from pole to pole. But between 50 to 45 mya, Australia made its final split from Antarctica and moved northward, India began crashing into Asia and cut off the Tethys Ocean and the global tropical circulation, and South America also moved northward, away from Antarctica. Although the debate is still fierce over the cooling’s exact causes, the evidence (much is from ) is that the oceans cooled off over the next 12 million years, very consistently, although a brief small reversal transpired at about 40 mya. By 37-38 mya, the 200-million-year-plus Greenhouse Earth phase ended and the transition to today’s ice age was underway. In the late Eocene, as the trend toward conditions began, such as the .

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What Factors Caused the Fall of the Roman Empire?

Had the treaty been carried into execution, the sovereign of Europe might soon have been the conqueror of Asia; but Caracalla obtained an easier though a more guilty victory. He artfully listened to his mother’s entreaties, and consented to meet his brother in her apartment, on terms of peace and reconciliation. In the midst of their conversation, some centurions, who had contrived to conceal themselves, rushed with drawn swords upon the unfortunate Geta. His distracted mother strove to protect him in her arms; but in the unavailing struggle, she was wounded in the hand, and covered with the blood of her younger son, while she saw the elder animating and assisting the fury of the assassins. As soon as the deed was perpetrated, Caracalla, with hasty steps and horror in his countenance, ran towards the Prætorian camp, as his only refuge, and threw himself on the ground before the statues of the tutelar deities. The soldiers attempted to raise and comfort him. In broken and disordered words he informed them of his imminent danger and fortunate escape: insinuating that he had prevented the designs of his enemy, and declaring his resolution to live and die with his faithful troops. Geta had been the favourite of the soldiers; but complaint was useless, revenge was dangerous, and they still reverenced the son of Severus. Their discontent died away in idle murmurs, and Caracalla soon convinced them of the justice of his cause, by distributing in one lavish donative the accumulated treasures of his father’s reign. The real of the soldiers alone were of importance to his power or safety. Their declaration in his favour commanded the dutiful of the senate. The obsequious assembly was always prepared to ratify the decision of fortune; but as Caracalla wished to assuage the first emotions of public indignation, the name of Geta was mentioned with decency, and he received the funeral honours of a Roman emperor. Posterity, in pity to his misfortune, has cast a veil over his vices. We consider that young prince as the innocent victim of his brother’s ambition, without recollecting that he himself wanted power, rather than inclination, to consummate the same attempts of revenge and murder.

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Yet, in the contest between Niger and Severus, a single city deserves an honourable exception. As Byzantium was one of the greatest passages from Europe into Asia, it had been provided with a strong garrison, and a fleet of five hundred vessels was anchored in the harbour. The impetuosity of Severus disappointed this prudent scheme of defence; he left to his generals the siege of Byzantium, forced the less guarded passage of the Hellespont, and, impatient of a meaner enemy, pressed forward to encounter his rival. Byzantium, attacked by a numerous and increasing army, and afterwards by the whole naval power of the empire, sustained a siege of three years, and remained faithful to the name and memory of Niger. The citizens and soldiers (we know not from what cause) were animated with equal fury; several of the principal officers of Niger, who despaired of, or who disdained a pardon, had thrown themselves into this last refuge; the fortifications were esteemed impregnable, and, in the defence of the place, a celebrated engineer displayed all the mechanic powers known to the ancients. Byzantium, at length, surrendered to famine. The magistrates and soldiers were put to the sword, the walls demolished, the privileges suppressed, and the destined capital of the East subsisted only as an open village, subject to the insulting jurisdiction of Perinthus. The historian Dion, who had admired the flourishing, and lamented the desolate, state of Byzantium, accused the revenge of Severus for depriving the Roman people of the strongest bulwark against the barbarians of Pontus and Asia. The truth of this observation was but too well justified in the succeeding age, when the Gothic fleets covered the Euxine, and passed through the undefended Bosphorus into the centre of the Mediterranean.

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Causes of the Fall of the Roman Empire Essay.

There has been much debate over the main reasons for the decline of the roman empire, with many points contradicting each other, but the most important reasons in my opinion can be easily shown in this essay.
My first and most important point is that Romans were greedy. Evidence of this is that taxes were increased so that the emperors could afford the luxuries and to have more money, so they looked like they were very rich even though some emperors weren't. This caused the empire to decline because people would stop paying taxes so that Rome would be weaker and vulnerable to attack. I believe this to be the most important cause of the decline of the Roman empire because this caused other things to happen, like people would question the ruling of Rome which would cause wars and arguments about who would be the next emperor, which caused the Roman empire to split into east and west which in turn caused soldiers to quit or lose discipline which then left the defences vulnerable for their worst enemies (The Barbarians) to attack. I think that this is Rome's fault. On the other hand, a very close second would be that the barbarians attacked because the roman defences were weak, they wiped out most of the Roman empire by themselves and left a lot of Romans for slaves and just left a tiny bit of the empire so the Roman empire had to retire. This links to the Barbarians keeping attacking because the Roman soldiers would be distracted about taxes being raised, leaving the defences vulnerable for the barbarians to keep attacking.

What Caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire? Essay

What Caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire? - Essay

The second most important reason that the roman empire declined is that the Barbarians attacked. The Barbarians attacked several times. Gaiseric was the first of their leaders. If the barbarians hadn't of attacked most of the Roman empire wouldn't of been took over. As a result of this, most Romans were took over or made slaves. Consequently, the Romans were weaker thus forcing the Roman empire to end. I do not think that this is Rome's fault though, it was the Barbarians who attacked them. This links to Romans were murdered because it could of been the attacking barbarians who killed them.

American History Essays: What Caused the Fall of the Western Roman Empire?

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Tacitus indulges himself in those beautiful episodes, in which he relates some domestic transaction of the Germans or of the Parthians, his principal object is to relieve the attention of the reader from a uniform scene of vice and misery. From the reign of Augustus to the time of Alexander Severus, the enemies of Rome were in her bosom — the tyrants, and the soldiers; and her prosperity had a very distant and feeble interest in the revolutions that might happen beyond the Rhine and the Euphrates. But, when the military order had levelled in wild anarchy the power of the prince, the laws of the senate, and even the discipline of the camp, the barbarians of the North and of the East, who had long hovered on the frontier, boldly attacked the provinces of a declining monarchy. Their vexatious inroads were changed into formidable irruptions, and, after a long vicissitude of mutual calamities, many tribes of the victorious invaders established themselves in the provinces of the Roman empire. To obtain a clearer knowledge of these great events we shall endeavour to form a previous idea of the character, forces, and designs of those nations who avenged the cause of Hannibal and Mithridates.